Protocol is the term used to refer to the set of norms, rules and guidelines that serve to guide a behavior or action. The concept of network protocol is used in the context of computing to name the regulations and the criteria that determine how the various components of a certain interconnection system should be communicated. This means that, through this protocol, devices that connect in a network can exchange data.
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Also known as communication protocol, the network protocols establishes the semantics and syntax of information exchange, which is a standard. Networked computers, in this way, have to act according to the parameters and criteria established by the protocol in question in order to communicate with each other and to recover data that, for some reason, has not reached its destination.
The network protocol includes various information that is essential for the connection. The protocol indicates how the physical connection is made, establishes the way in which communication should begin and end, determines how to act against corrupted data, protects information from attack by intruders, signals the eventual closure of the transmission, etc.
There are network protocols in each layer or level of the connection. The lower layer refers to the physical connectivity that allows the development of the network (with UTP cables, radio waves, etc.), while the most advanced layer is linked to the applications used by the computer user (with protocols such as HTTP, FTP, SMTP, POP and others). The two more commons are:
The Hypertext Transfer Protocol is used in all transactions that take place on the Internet, since it has the definition of semantics and syntax that servers, proxies and clients must use (all components of the web architecture ) to establish a communication between them. It is a protocol that is oriented to the transaction and is supported by the “request-response” scheme, typical between a client (also called the user agent and can be, for example, an Internet browser) and a server. The information that is transmitted in this process is called a resource, identified through a URL (Uniform Resource Locator).
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The File Transfer Protocol, on the other hand, is used when you want to send and receive files from one system to another, provided that both are based on the client-server architecture and are connected to a network that complies with the TCP, explained in the definition of communication protocol. FTP allows a user to connect to a server to download files or upload them, without the need for both computers to use the same operating system.
To get the List of Network Protocols, Click Here